Gagauz Republic- In August of 1990, Turkish-speaking Christians concentrated in southern Moldova, known as the Gagauz, seceded from Moldova and petitioned Moscow for recognition as a full SSR. Violence broke out as elections for the new government drew near in late October, and a state of emergency was declared. The Gagauz government became more isolated throughout the following months, in part because the Gagauz Premier Stepan Topal allied himself with Communist hardliners in reaction to Moldova's increasing autonomy. Moldovan troops arrested seceral Gagauz leaders in the wake of the August 1990 coup in Moscow. Talks in 1992 granted the Gagauz autonomy within Moldova. The Gagauz also seceded from Russia in January of 1906, but this abortive revolution was thwarted by the Russian police two weeks later.
Galicia- see West Ukraine, People's Republic of.
Gallic Empire- The Roman Empire's later years were punctuated by periods of chaos upon the death of nearly every emperor. During one of these periods, the Roman general Postumus, who commanded the legions along the Rhine, was declared emperor by his troops. While Postumus accepted the acclaim of his troops, he refused to march on Rome. Instead, he occupied the imperial palace at Trier in northern Gaul and busied himself repairing the Rhine defenses. Soon, Gaul, Spain, Britain, and Rome's German provinces defected to the new empire. Rome left Postumus to his own devices, since the emperor there was busy fighting off other would-be usurpers. Exasperated by his refusal to go plunder Italy, the army sent an assassin to murder Postumus in 269 CE. A series of weak and greedy dictators followed, under whom Spain and southern Gaul returned to Roman allegiance. In 271, amidst a fresh German invasion, Tetricus assumed the Gallic throne and fended off the Teutons. In 274, the Emperor Aurelian marched on Trier, intent on reclaiming Gaul. Almost immediately after the battle started, Tetricus surrendered. Many felt that this surrender had been arranged in a secret deal, a suspicion that was confirmed for many when Tetricus was appointed to a lucrative administrative position in southern Italy. Gaul and Britain returned quietly to the Empire, and the kingmakers of the Rhine legions returned to garrison duty.
Galveston- Born in 1779, Jean Lafitte emigrated to the New World. He took up privateering, and by the time he was thirty, ruled the island of Grande Terre in Barataria Bay outside New Orleans, where he sold stolen slaves. In 1813, Lafitte was charged with piracy by federal authorities, but escaped prosecution with the help of local magistrates, who had invested heavily in Lafitte's enterprises. Soon afterwards, Lafitte was approached by British agents, who offered him a royal commission if he would bring his fleet into the War of 1812 against the Americans. Lafitte instead mustered two thousand men and played a vital role in the Battle of New Orleans, by providing not just men but also powder. Faced with an unsympathetic and much stronger federal presence at New Orleans, Lafitte moved his base of operations to Galveston Island, in the Mexican province of Tejas. Within in a year, he had returned to privateering, selling stolen slaves from Galveston; James Bowie made a small fortune as Lafitte's middleman. Lafitte, promised restitution for his contributions during the War of 1812, made several trips to Washington but never succeeded in getting the funds. In 1821, the U.S. Navy again ejected Lafitte from his base at Galveston. Lafitte moved to Mugeres Island off the Yucatan coast; he traveled to Mexico in 1825, hoping to recover from a serious illness.
Ganienkeh, North American Indian State of- also Ganiekeh. The 1970s saw a number of highly publicized confrontations between the U.S. government and Native Americans, such as the Oglala Nation's standoff at Wounded Knee and the Alcatraz occupation. Another clash occurred at Moss Lake in upstate New York. After the federal Indian Claims Commission refused to consider compensation to the Mohawk Nation, saying that its jurisdiction only covered western tribes, a group of Mohawk activists declared 600 acres near Moss Lake the sovereign Mohawk territory of Ganienkeh, and further laid claim to all of northeastern New York. After a firefight between the Mohawks and local vigilantes, the state government started eviction proceedings. When the federal courts refused to hear the matter, Assistant State Attorney General Mario Cuomo was dispatched to negotiate a settlement. In May of 1977, the Mohawks accepted a smaller land grant and the crisis was ended.
Geralia- see Republic of Rio Grande do Sul.
Gilan, Persian Soviet Socialist Republic of- The Gilakis are a people of mixed Turkish and Persian origin who reside south of Azerbaijan. In 1920, Soviet forces invaded the province of Gilan and attempted to create a friendly Communist state. Local opposition scuttled Bolshevik plans, and the Soviets withdrew after the Shah granted them a lucrative oil concession.
Girokaster, Republic of- see Republic of Korçë.
Gorno-Badakhshan- see Badakhshan.
Gorongosa- A minor prazero in the Zambezi region, Gorongosa was thrown into chaos by the war against Massangano. Its army was routed, and the troubles were heightened by the loss of the de Sousa heir. In 1880, Manuel Antonio de Sousa came to power, and defeated the nearby chiefdom of Baroe. This strategic conquest allowed Gorongosa to nurture pretensions of dominating the entire inland veldt, and brought a second war with Massangano. De Sousa shattered the army of Massangano in a single battle in close cooperation with the Portuguese authorities. De Sousa was forced to flee later after his coziness with the colonial governor upset several of his henchmen. Gorongosa was torn by civil war among rival warlords throughout the 1890s, and this collapse helped speed the final end of the prazero system.
Gosha, Sultanate of- The Gosha Valley in southern Somalia was first settled in the mid-nineteenth century. The inhabitants were runaway slaves from nearby plantations. During the 1880s, the valley came under the control of Nassib Bunda. Bunda was renowned as a sorcerer, and was not a bad ruler either. For two decades, the Italian colonial government was helpless against him, since native troops refused to fight the sorcerer "Sultan" Bunda. After Bunda died in 1906, the valley kingdom collapsed.
Goshen- see Stellaland.
Gothia- see Mangup.
Graaff-Reinet- The town of Graaff-Reinet in the northern Cape Province was founded in 1760 by Boer settlers. In 1785, the district was officially chartered by the Dutch East India Company, and a Commissioner was assigned to the area. East India Company officials were notoriously corrupt and inefficient, and the Boers soon came to resent the Company's presence. In 1795, the Xhosa inhabitants of the region began a series of cattle raids to slow European expansion. Hoping to defuse tensions, Commissioner H.C.D. Maynier tried to negotiate with the Xhosa. When the Xhosa ignored him and stepped up their attacks, the incensed Boers formed an emergency committee and expelled Maynier. His replacement arrived to find three hundred settlers ready to leave on a punitive expedition. When he refused to support the commando raid, the Boers expelled him as well and declared Graaff-Reinet independent. In August of 1795, the British occupied the Cape Province and demanded that the Boers pledge allegiance to the United Kingdom. The Boers refused to do so, and the British launched a series of punitive expeditions which devastated Graaff-Reinet's economy and sparked another Xhosa war. When the Dutch Batavian Republic assumed control in 1803, the exhausted Boers were only too glad to welcome its authority. The return of British authorities as a result of the Napoleonic Wars forced many Boers to leave the Cape Province, launching the Great Trek.
Granadine Confederation- see Cauca.
Gran Colombia- The Federation of Greater Colombia was founded by Simon Bolivar in 1824. It comprised the modern states of Colombia, Panama, Venezuela, and Ecuador. Bolivar was also President of Bolivia and Peru, but failed to integrate those nations. Despite Bolivar's best efforts, regionalism tore Gran Colombia apart, and the Federation was dissolved in 1830, shortly before Bolivar died.
Grand Capri Republic- see Atlantis, Isle of Gold.
La Grande'Anse: see Haiti, Kingdom of.
Greater Mongolia- see Buryatia, Inner Mongolia.
Great Siberia- see Siberia, Republic of.
Grebo Kingdom- In the 1870s, the Grebo chiefdoms of northeast Liberia united under a single king. Encouraged by French and British traders, the Grebo declared their independence and initiated economic relations with the colonial powers, free of the restrictions Liberia had placed on trade. After the Liberians were pushed out of several settlements, the U.S. Navy intervened. The commanding officer urged the Liberians to cease persecution of the local tribes, and was promptly ignored.
Greco-Poland- During the wars which followed the Revolution of 1789, France was quick to set up revolutionary governments throughout Europe. It was equally quick to disown these movements when their usefulness had passed. During the campaigns of the 1790s, Polish units fought with courage and distinction alongside the French revolutionary armies. By the end of the decade, over ten thousand Poles were enlisted under the tricolor. However, in 1801 the Peace of Lunéville made the Polish legions obsolete, and the Poles were reorganized into units of the regular army. Jan Henryk Dabrowski, whose Polish Italic Legion numbered 9,000, refused to give up so easily. He launched plans to march his troops to Greece, which he would liberate from the Ottomans and declare the state of Greco-Poland, a haven for two dispossessed nations. The French halted his preparations at the last moment, dispersing the Polish forces throughout the Republic's possessions.
Green Ukraine- also Ukrainian Republic of the Far East. Following the November 1922 annexation of the Far Eastern Republic by the Soviet Union, Ukrainians in Kamchatka led an abortive attempt to set up an independent Ukrainian nation in Siberia. It collapsed rapidly in the face of Soviet opposition.
Greytown- Greytown, also called San Juan del Norte, sits at the southern edge of Nicaragua's Caribbean coast. It formerly served as the capital of Britain's Mosquito Coast protectorate. In 1855, Nicaragua was conquered by the American filibuster William Walker. Inspired by his success, Henry L. Kinney found a group of backers and manufactured a claim on the Mosquito Coast. The Pennsylvanian arrived at Greytown while Walker was consolidating his control over the interior, and was proclaimed Governor of the "City and Territory of Greytown" in September, 1855. However, his American backers pulled out in the face of opposition from Walker, the Nicaraguans, and the British. In a matter of months, Kinney sheepishly resigned and was expelled from Nicaragua.
Guangxi- see Kwangsi.
Guayabera- see Marquetalia.
Guayaquil- When the Argentine General San Martin invaded Royalist Peru in 1820, the governor of the northern region of Guayaquil was cut off from Spanish support. Partisans of independence took advantage of the chaos to depose the royal governor and declared themselves independent in October of 1820. To the north, Simon Bolívar had consolidated his hold over Colombia, and determined to annex Guayaquil. An expedition sent in 1821 failed, due to local opposition. In July of 1822, Bolívar himself arrived at Guayaquil, hoping to settle the matter. At the same time, San Martin arrived from Peru. The two leaders met privately at one o'clock on the afternoon of July 27. At five o'clock, they went to dinner. San Martin left that evening, and Bolívar annexed Guayaquil without other protest.
Guizhou- see Kweichow.
Guriia- Guriia was a province of western Georgia in pre-Revolutionary Russia. As the Social Democratic Party gained strength in the district, agitation among the peasants increased. Early in 1903, the peasants stopped paying taxes to Moscow. After a harsh official reaction, the peasants initiated a boycott of all government services. By summer, local government in the area had almost completely disintegrated.
Nicholas II took no action against Guriia throughout 1904, assuming that the cost of dealing with the rebellion would not be justified. After the beginning of the 1905 Revolution, however, the revolt began spreading throughout Georgia. Within a month, much of the northern Caucasus was under the control of local peasants. A force of 10,000 soldiers was sent to Georgia, but the commanding officer refused to attack, fearing a general rebellion would erupt. The Russians withdrew in July. They returned in October, but it was not until January of 1906 that Guriia was attacked and forced into submission.Y Wladfa Gymreig- also Welsh Colony. In 1863, a group of Welsh decided that emigration to Argentina would offer better opportunities than the English-speaking United States for the survival of the Welsh nation. To that end, several hundred Welsh moved to the Camwy Valley of eastern Patagonia. They established Welsh schools and newspapers and received the assurance of Argentinian authorities that the Welsh Colony would receive statehood when its population reached 20,000. However, the Argentinian government soon grew uneasy with the success of the colony, and Spanish was declared the official language of the area in 1896. Spanish and Italian immigration, encouraged by the government, reduced the Welsh to a minority. Welsh is still spoken in the Camwy, but is declining.
Haiti, Kingdom of- Haiti declared its independence in 1804 under Jean Jacques Dessalines. That same year, Dessalines declared himself Emperor. After his assassination in 1806, Haiti was divided between the Republic of Haiti in the south and the Kingdom of Haiti, under Henry Christophe, in the north. The situation was further complicated by the secession of South Haiti in the southwest corner of the country under André Rigaud in 1810. His own republic contained the former Maroon enclave of La Grande'Anse under Goman, who was allied with King Henry. A few months after Rigaud seized power, he died, and South Haiti rejoined the Republic. In 1820, Henry Christophe committed suicide. Haiti was reunited soon afterwards.
Ha-mi- see Kumul, Khanate of.
Hatay- After the First World War, Syria came under a French mandate. The port city of Alexandretta along the Turkish-Syrian border was awarded to France. The region of Alexandretta (now known as Hatay) was ethnically heterogenous, mixed between Turks, Arabs, Kurds, and Armenians. In 1921, the French gave the region autonomous status, acknowledging its distinctiveness. In 1936, rioting broke out following elections; two of the new legislators favored annexing the region to an independent Syria. In 1937, the region was reorganized as the State of Hatay, and it was linked to Turkey as well as Syria in defense matters. The 1938 elections returned a majority of Turkish legislators, and the French signed a treaty with Turkey in July returning the area to Turkish rule. While the census results leading to the elections were disputed, France was more concerned with gaining Turkish goodwill as the European crisis grew to a boil. On September 2, 1938, the Republic of Hatay was declared, and the Republic was annexed to Turkey on June 23, 1939.
Hawaii, Republic of- In early 1893, Queen Liliuokalani of Hawai'i was overthrown by American planters and businessmen. President Harrison began preparations to annex the kingdom, but Grover Cleveland, who was inaugarated in March, was less excited by dreams of Manifest Destiny. The controlling junta of Hawai'i established the Republic as a temporary measure in July of 1894, fully expecting annexation to be inevitable. President McKinley, of course, did not disappoint them and annexed Hawai'i in 1898.
Hawera Republic- In 1879, the native Maori of New Zealand had been largely subdued, but a center of resistance remained at the town of Parihaka, under the local prophet Te Whiti. When the colonial government sent surveyors onto Parihaka land, Te Whiti began tearing up survey markers and ploughing land appropriated by the British settlers nearby. The settlers were exasperated by the government's apparent indifference, and formed volunteer regiments to force the unarmed Maori protestors off their land. The settlers then declared themselves the Hawera Republic, claiming that the central government was useless. The secession ended quietly when colonial troops arrived two weeks later.
Hay-on-Wye- In 1977, Hay-on-Wye was just another decaying British town past its prime. On April Fool's Day, local bookstore owner Richard Booth decided to declare himself King of Hay-on-Wye, both to drum up business and protest the seeming indifference of the British government to Hay's plight. The move inspired Hay to remake itself as a tourist destination, and today Hay thrives as the first of the "international book towns", with thirty bookstores (one per 65 inhabitants) and 500,000 annual visitors. King Richard still actively serves in community functions, and as the owner of a very fine bookstore.
Heaven, Kingdom of- see Lundy, Dominion of.
Herzog-Bosna- The Croatian nationalist leader Mate Boban became president of Herzog-Bosna in August of 1993. The government's territory consisted of several Croatian-held areas in western Bosnia. As Srpska forces made rapid gains against the central government in 1993, many ethnic Croatians decided to abandon Sarajevo and secede, in hopes of gaining support from Croatia. The hopes of secessionist forces were dashed during the winter campaign of 1993, when Herzog-Bosna troops took heavy losses, and help from Zagreb did not materialize. In February of 1994, Boban resigned as President. A month later, the tottering Herzog-Bosna government acknowledged Sarajevo's legitimate authority and agreed to participate in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Hetmanate- see Ukrainian National Republic.
Hijaz, Kingdom of- The Sharif Hussein of Mecca declared the Hijaz, which comprises the western coast of the Arabian Peninsula, an independent kingdom in 1916. The British supported him in his secession from the Ottoman Empire, sending materiel and advisors. After the war, Hussein rejected an alliance with the British, despite the growing strength of Ibn Sa'ud in the interior of Arabia. In 1924, Hussein declared himself the Caliph of Islam. Ibn Sa'ud promptly declared war, and ousted Hussein in 1925.
Hokianga- see United Tribes of New Zealand.
Honsawatoi- see Mon.
Hornachero Republic- see Salé, Republic of.
Hottentot Republic- The Hottentots were a people of Southern Africa, which contained a large population of half-African and half-European "crossbreeds". They had been converted to Christianity early in the settlement of South Africa, and their cause was eagerly taken up by the missionaries. One missionary, John Philip, campaigned in England to remove limits on Hottentot mobility. He was successful, and in 1832 the Cape Colony's "Ordnance 50" gave the Hottentots freedom to move throughout the colony. Andries Waterboer, a Griqua chief and "crossbreed", declared himself Captain of the Hottentot Republic, accepting heavy aid from the missionaries and sending raiding parties to steal Boer cattle. The Republic was formally ended by Britain's annexation of Griqualand in 1871, after the discovery of diamonds in the area.
Hré- The Hré are a native people of Vietnam’s southern coastal lowlands. Among other ethnic groups, notably the Montagnards, the Hré were granted autonomy by the French in return for military aid against the Viet Minh. After fighting between the Hré and Viet Minh escalted to near-warfare in 1949, the French helped to organize the Hré Independence Movement. This group, which was promised autonomy if not full independence by the French, was merged into a wider network of native forces in 1952. South Vietnam’s independent government integrated the Hré forces into the ARVN.
Hui- see Chinese Islamic Republic, Tunganistan.
Hulunbuir- see Barga.
Hunan- During the Second Chinese Revolution, the southern province of Hunan declared itself independent on July 25, 1913. Forces of President Yuan Shih-k'ai toppled the provincial government within a month.
Hutt River Province Principality- Leonard Casley settled as a farmer in Western Australia in 1969. Outraged by the low wheat allotment sent him by the Australian government that year, Casley seceded and formed the independent Hutt River Province. Casley's new country soon came under attack, when the Prime Minister began threatening action against Hutt River. The citizens of Hutt River responded by acclaiming Casley as Prince Leonard I; under Commonwealth law, a monarch could not be charged with treason. While the loopholes have since been closed, the Australian government has not moved against Hutt River since the declaration. Leonard and his son, Crown Prince Ian, rule as benevolent monarchs over the sixty-odd residents and some 17,500 overseas citizens.
Hyderabad, Principality of- One of Britain's numerous client rulers in central India, the Prince of Hyderabad refused to acknowledge the new Indian government following independence in 1947. Indian troops invaded Hyderabad and rapidly forced its capitulation.
Icaria- Icaria is a Greek island in the eastern Aegean. To put it lightly, tensions in the region were high during the early twentieth century. The Ottomans were in retreat everywhere, the newly independent nations of the Balkans were united against them, and Italy had in 1911 declared war, seizing Libya. In 1912, the Italians swept the Aegean of Ottoman warships and seized Rhodes. The inhabitants of Icaria took advantage of the war to declare themselves independent on July 12, 1912. The Balkan alliance declared war in July, reducing the Ottoman holdings in Europe to a tiny foothold. The island was annexed to Greece in November.
Ichkeriya- see Chechnya.
Idel-Ural Federation- The Idel-Ural Federation was an alliance of Finnic and Turkic nations along the central Volga, dominated by Tatar nationalists. Talks aimed at establishing the Federation as an independent nation spanning a third of the Volga watershed were held in June of 1918. Before the Tatars could sway enough ethnic leaders to make Idel-Ural a reality, Bolshevik pressure broke up the shaky coalition.
Igbo- see Biafra.
Ijaws- see Niger Delta Republic.
Ili Republic- see East Turkestan, Islamic Republic of.
Imperia- see Ossola.
Second Inca Empire- see Vilcabamba.
Third Inca Empire- The resurrected Inca Empire was declared in 1789 by Tupac-Amaru II, who claimed descent from the Inca royal family. Spain suppressed the revolt bloodily, killing 100,000 out of a Peruvian population of just over a million.
Indian Stream, Republic of- While relations between the United States and the United Kingdom mellowed considerably after the War of 1812, some issues remained unsettled, such as the border between Canada and New Hampshire. After years of increasing frustration with both governments and the failure of , the 400-odd inhabitants of 200,000 acres in northern New Hampshire declared themselves the independent Indian Stream Republic in 1832. Unable to drive a bargain with either Canada or the U.S. that was to their liking, the Yankee secessionists held out until March of 1835, when a mob drove off a state policeman trying to serve an arrest warrant. The New Hampshire legislature debated sending in troops. In response, Indian Stream opened negotiations with Canadian officials. Events came to a boil in October. John Tyler, a citizen of Indian Stream was arrested by a New Hampshire sheriff. A pro-Canadian mob freed Tyler, and New Hampshire placed a bounty of five dollars on his head. In response, Tyler led another pro-Canadian mob to capture Sheriff Blanchard of New Hampshire. A pro-New Hampshire mob promptly released Blanchard. The violence ended after two New Hampshire partisans led a pro-New Hampshire mob onto Canadian soil pursuing Tyler and confronted Justice Alexander Rea (or Rae), the Lower Canada official in charge of the talks with Indian Stream. During a brief scuffle, Rea received a sword wound to the head and a Deputy Young assisting Justice Rea was shot in the groin. Rea was taken prisoner, although he was quickly released. After this fiasco, New Hampshire's state militia was ordered to Indian Stream, although the governor's order was swiftly countermanded by President Jackson. Canada relinquished all claims to New Hampshire land in January of 1836. Four months later, the residents acknowledged New Hampshire's jurisdiction, which was confirmed by treaty in 1842. In 1849, the US Congress awarded a small sum of money to Deputy Young's wife, in compensation for her husband's groin wound.
Indonesia, Islamic State of- also Negara Islam Indonesia. In 1948, an Islamic mystic named Kartosuwirjo declared Indonesia to be an Islamic theocracy, part of the Darul Islam, Arabic for "the world of Islam". Darul Islam declared itself Indonesia’s legitimate government in August of 1949. It managed to gain control over much of western Java, and encouraged the unrest in Aceh, which joined Darul Islam in revolt in 1953. The Darul Islam movement also made some progress in southern Sulawesi. Kartosuwirjo was captured and executed in 1962. At the same time, the government managed to detach Aceh from the The Islamic State, granting it autonomy in return for acceptance of Indonesian authority. Darul Islam collapsed rapidly under these blows.
Indonesian Republic, Revolutionary Government of the- In February of 1958, while President Sukarno was out of the country, a group of Sumatran army officers rebelled. The Revolutionary Government, or PRRI, was supported by Sulawesi rebels who wanted a loose federal government, rather than Sukarno's centralized authoritarianism. By July, the rebellion was largely over, although PRRI remnants continued fighting until 1961.
Ingria, Republic of- also Ingermanland. Ingria is a Finnish region located between St. Petersburg and southern Finland. In October of 1917, the Ingrians revolted. When Soviet troops invaded Ingria, it declared independence in January of 1920. A year later, the Ingrians surrendered to the Red Army.
Inner Mongolian Republic- Declared with Soviet encouragement in the summer of 1945, the IMR was weakened when the Russians withdrew. At the same time to the west, a Greater Mongolian Republic was formed. The two republics were united as the Mongolian Autonomous Region by the Communists in April, 1947. An independent Republic of Inner Mongolia in the north collapsed after the surrender of its leader, Irkim Bator, in 1948. In August of 1949, the prominent Mongol leader Tê Wang returned from prison. He organized the Mongol Alashan Republic south of the MAR in Ningxia. The Alashan Republic fell apart after its chief general defected to the Communists.
Ionian Islands- see Septinsular Republic.
Ireland, First Republic of- The first Irish republic was declared at Wexford in May of 1798. It was controlled by a Committee of Public Safety, inspired by the French revolutionaries. The British Viceroy, Lord Cornwallis, concentrated his forces. This allowed him to defeat the regional militias which attacked him. Before the Wexford Committee could consolidate its forces, Cornwallis attacked in August, and destroyed the Wexford army in a battle which cost 25,000 lives. French forces arrived a month later, when the patriot movement could provide no meaningful support.
Ishmaelites- The Ishmaelites, or Tribe of Ishmael, were a nomadic group of mixed ethnic descent, but were primarily African. In order to escape government control, the Ishmaelites settled in the Northwest Territory around 1800, on the current site of Indianapolis. They migrated annually across the Midwest, maintaining some Islamic African traditions, which became part of Midwest African-American culture and influenced the foundation of the Nation of Islam. The Ishmaelites were absorbed and ceased to exist as a distinct culture in the early years of the twentieth century.
Isle of Dogs- The Isle of Dogs is a small peninsula in the middle of London, formed by a bend in the River Thames. The area was historically a dumping ground for poor Londoners, who often felt they received an unfairly small allocation of resources. In 1970, a group of residents declared independence in protest, barricading the single road leading into the Isle. A Labour city councilman named Ted Johns was elected President. The protest served its purpose; extra funding was allocated, and the Republic was dissolved.
Isthmus, Free State of the- see Panama.
Jabaquara- Jabaquara was a Maroon settlement outside Santos in southeastern Brazil. It was founded in 1886, and a year later its population had swelled to over ten thousand people. The authorities, sensing the imminent end of slavery, refused to move against the ‘fugitives’. Jabaquara’s inhabitants dispersed when slavery was abolished a few years later.
Jalisco- see Zacatecas.
Jaluit- see Ralik Islands, Kingdom of the.
Jebel Druze- see Druzes.
Jefferson- Northern California and southern Oregon have long been dissatisfied with their respective governments. This exasperation erupted over the failure of the government to provide funding for new roads. A number of border counties sent delegates to demand better treatment at a November, 1941 meeting in Yreka, California. The local board of county supervisors, urged on by the Chamber of Commerce, allocated funds to further the cause of independence and designated Yreka the temporary capital of the State of Jefferson. On December 4, Judge John Childs was elected governor of the new state. National opinion was favorable, but fate was not; three days later, the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor. The inhabitants of Jefferson put aside their bid for the sake of national unity. All ended well; the government built a number of roads through the area to transport timber during the war.
Jiangxi- see Kiangsi.
Jiti Shahar- see Kashgaria, Emirate of.
Johanna- see Libertatia.
Jones, Free State of- According to legend, Jones County in southern Mississippi seceded from the Confederacy during the Civil War. However, no evidence exists that such an event took place. The legend appears to have some basis in fact: the nickname "Free State of Jones" was used for the county, but was used in antebellum Mississippi and referred to the paucity of slaves in Jones County. A military operation was launched by the Confederate Army against an organization calling itself the Republic of Jones in late 1863 and early 1864. The Republic of Jones (and perhaps a second group called the Jones County Confederacy) appear to have been bands of Confederate Army deserters, who took refuge in the swamps and woods of Jones County. The Natchez Courier, a pro-Union newspaper, published a story lampooning the Confederacy in 1864, involving the supposed secession of Jones County. Encouraged by oral tradition, the legend has persisted to the present day.
Jubaland- also Jubbaland. Following the secession of Puntland from Somalia in July of 1998, several regional leaders began preparing for independence. Under Mohamed Said Hersi, known as "General Morgan", the southern port of Kismayo was declared the capital of an independent Jubaland on September 3, 1998. Like Puntland's leadership, Said Hersi has avowed that Jubaland will rejoin a united Somalia.
Junagadh- Junagadh is a district lying on the Indian side of the India-Pakistan border, along the Arabian Sea. While most of its inhabitants are Hindu, its ruling family until 1948 was Muslim. After India gained its independence, Junagadh's Nawab resisted integration, hoping for annexation to Pakistan. This was largely due to the actions of a Muslim agent, who convinced the Nawab that India would poison his beloved dogs. Two weeks after India declared independence, the Indian Army ousted the Nawab, who fled to Pakistan with his family and his unharmed dogs.
Jura- The Jura valley is a canton in western Switzerland, only recently joined to the Swiss confederation. From the 10th century to 1792, Jura was under the control of the Bishop of Basel. In December of 1792, local radicals threw off the bishop's rule, declaring the region the Rauracian Republic. Four months later, the Jura was annexed to the French Republic.
At the Congress of Vienna, Jura was attached to Switzerland, and it became part of the German-speaking canton of Bern. The Jurassians resented this domination, and there was even a terrorist secession movement in the 1970s that was responsible for riots and bombings. In 1979, a referendum finally granted Jura independence as a full canton of Switzerland. Some activists still demand the restoration of the Rauracian Republic.
Justus Township- Justus Township was a small ranch located outside Jordan, Montana. Sovereignty was claimed for the area by a group called the Freemen. However, it soon became apparent that the Freemen were more interested in fraudulent schemes than political idealism. Justus Township ceased to operate when FBI agents arrested the entire population in June of 1996.
Footnote: Galveston As a matter of fact, he did, although he sent his men back with word that he had succumbed. Lafitte returned to Galveston under an assumed name (Meazall, which his descendants still carry), where he died of old age. Back.
Footnote: Guayaquil No one has ever determined how the two Great Liberators agreed that Guayaquil would join Gran Colombia. The theory I favor is that they played dice for it. Back.
Footnote: Hawaii As a matter of fact, Cleveland made a speech to Congress denouncing the illegal coup. Back.
Footnote: Ishmaelites It has been argued that the Ishmaelite Islamic tradition contributed to the birth of the Black Islam movement. Back.
Footnote: Isle of Dogs It turns out this was merely the beginning of the area's woes; in the name of urban renewal, the government turned the Isle of Dogs into Canary Wharf, burying the district's history under an abysmal pile of postmodern "architecture". Back.